Public Domain Super Heroes

Hunchback of Notre-Dame

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The Hunchback of Notre-Dame

Real Name


First Appearance

The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (1831)

Original Publisher


Created by

Victor Hugo


Hunchback jumbo comics

From Jumbo Comics #10.

The story begins on Epiphany (6 January), 1482, the day of the Feast of Fools in Paris, France. Quasimodo, a deformed hunchback who is the bell-ringer of Notre Dame, is introduced by his crowning as the Pope of Fools.

Esméralda, a beautiful Gypsy street dancer with a kind and generous heart, captures the hearts of many men, including those of Captain Phoebus and Pierre Gringoire, a poor street poet, but especially those of Quasimodo and his adoptive father, Claude Frollo, the Archdeacon of Notre Dame. Frollo is torn between his obsessive lust and the rules of the church. He orders Quasimodo to kidnap her, but the hunchback is captured by Phoebus and his guards, who save Esméralda. Gringoire, witnessing all this, accidentally trespasses into the Court of Miracles, home of the Truands. He was about to be hanged under the orders of Clopin Trouillefou, the King of Truands, until Esméralda saved his life by marrying him.

The following day, Quasimodo is sentenced to be flogged and turned on the pillory for one hour, followed by another hour's public exposure. He calls for water. Esméralda, seeing his thirst, offers him a drink. It saves him, and she captures his heart.

Esméralda is later charged with the attempted murder of Phoebus, whom Frollo actually attempted to kill in jealousy after seeing him trying to seduce Esméralda, and is tortured and sentenced to death by hanging. As she is being led to the gallows, Quasimodo swings down by the bell rope of Notre Dame and carries her off to the cathedral under the law of sanctuary.

Frollo later informs Gringoire that the Court of Parliament has voted to remove Esméralda's right to sanctuary so she can no longer seek shelter in the church and will be taken from the church and killed. Clopin hears the news from Gringoire and rallies the Truands to charge the cathedral and rescue Esméralda.

When Quasimodo sees the Truands, he assumes they are there to hurt Esméralda, so he drives them off. Likewise, he thinks the King's men want to rescue her, and tries to help them find her. She is rescued by Frollo and her phony husband, Gringoire. But after yet another failed attempt to win her love, Frollo betrays Esméralda by handing her to the troops and watches while she is being hanged.

When Frollo laughs during Esméralda's hanging, Quasimodo pushes him from the heights of Notre Dame to his death. Quasimodo then goes to the vaults under the huge Gibbet of Montfaucon, and lies next to Esméralda's corpse, where it had been unceremoniously thrown after the execution. He stays at Montfaucon, and eventually dies of starvation. About eighteen months later, the tomb is opened, and the skeletons are found. As someone tries to separate them, Quasimodo's bones turn to dust.

Public Domain Appearances


  • The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (1831)


  • Jumbo Comics #1-8,10
  • Four Color Comics #854
  • Wonderworld Comics #4



  • La Esmeralda (1836)
  • Esmeralda (1847)
  • Esmeralda (1883)
  • Notre Dame (1914)


  • La Esmeralda (1844)
  • Gudule’s Daughter, or Esmiralda (1902)


  • To date, all of the film and TV adaptations have strayed somewhat from the original plot, some going as far as to give it a happy ending.
  • In 2010, British archivist Adrian Glew discovered references to a real-life hunchback who was a foreman of a government sculpting studio in Paris in the 1820s who worked on post-Revolution restorations to the Cathedral.
  • While the original character is in public domain, the version of the character used by Disney and other later adaptations published after 1923 ( with the exception of the silent film starring Lou Chaney which was not renewed) are NOT.

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