Ruritania is a fictional country originally found in three novels written by the author Anthony Hope.
Hope wrote The Prisoner of Zenda (1894), The Heart of Princess Osra (1896), and Rupert of Hentzau (1898).
Ruritania was the setting for stories about social revolution, mistaken identity and doppelganger replacement and palace intrigue. After the original three novels fell into the public domain Ruritania has become a cottage industry for pastiches and continuations of the original works in everything from Tintin comics (King Ottokar's Sceptre) to Doctor Who stories (Androids of Tara).
Ruritania is a germanic slav-influenced land. It has been fleshed out in considerable detail over the decades and has also been subjected to various academic exercises, wargames, geopolitical analyses and similar pursuits.
Ruritania is sometimes used as a placeholder or portmanteau in training exercises and political treatises.
In the Sherlock Holmes short story "The Adventure of the Illustrious Client", an ocean liner is named the Ruritania, implying that in the Sherlock Holmes universe Ruritania is a real place or noble title.